Oh Gabriele (Again)
Posted on March 24, 2015
I like to think of this 1969 Adler Gabriele 10 as a miniature version of the 1968 Adler Universal 39 I sold late last year.
The King’s Adler (SOLD)
Not much variation on colour, but plenty of variation when it comes to model name and/or name of parent company, thanks to a series of corporate takeovers and acquisitions.
Here’s a potted history based on Triumph-Adler’s self-written history:
1953: Triumph is taken over by radio and television set manufacturer Max Grundig.
1957: Grundig acquires a majority shareholding in Adler via the Triumph factories in Nuremberg.
(Note: 1930 marked the beginning of a long association between the Frankfurt-based ‘Adler factory’ and the Nuremberg-based ‘Triumph factory’ when they jointly developed the first swing-arm typewriter for ‘Adler’.)
1958: Already working in close collaboration with each other, the separate development and production programmes of Triumph and Adler are combined by Grundig.
1966: Adler’s “Junior” range of typewriters is renamed after Max Grundig’s granddaughter “Gabriele”.
1968: The Triumph-Adler Group within the Grundig Group is now the fifth largest office machine manufacturer in the world, behind Olivetti/Underwood (Italy/USA), Litton (USA), and the German Olympia Werken.
1969: Litton Industries steals a march on its big rival, Olivetti/Underwood, and buys out Triumph-Adler. The USA government immediately files an anti-trust suit against Litton accusing it of creating a monopoly.
(Note: They had a point. Litton’s T-A acquisition followed its 1964 acquisition of Royal McBee and, through its Royal Typewriter division, the acquisition of the English typewriter producer, Imperial, in 1966.)
1973: The Fair Trade Commission (FTC) rules that Litton must divest itself of Triumph-Adler. Litton appeals and, in a rare reversal, the FTC issue a ruling in April 1975 stating that Litton can keep Triumph-Adler.
A listing on German eBay perfectly illustrates the naming confusion …
A Grundig invoice for an Adler Gabriele 30 that was sold (presumably) with an Adler J2 / J4 instruction booklet …
Or take this Adler Gabriele 25 on eBay UK …
Sold with some Triumph-Adler Litton Industries paperwork (the serial number dates it to 1971) …
On the backs of the typewriters in this series, some (like my Gabriele 10) have no company designation at all, just “Made in Western Germany” …
While others spell out just who is in charge …
Grundig Organisation (Gabriele 20)
T-A organisation with the Litton Industries logo (Junior 2)
I imagine other typewriters may have a T-A organisation badge without the Litton Industries logo, or perhaps T-A organisation combined with Grundig.
Variations on the front of the machines are more important since these are the ones which stare us in the face.
“Triumph” and “Adler” variations on the same typewriter for example …
A “Triumph” Gabriele 10
“Triumph” Gabriele 10/20/30 User Guide
A “Triumph” Gabriele 25
Model name variants aren’t limited to just substitutions of “Junior” with “Gabriele”, there are Junior e and Junior 1 model name variants as well as J 1, J 2, J 3, J 4 equivalents.
Logo and facia variations are interesting …
Adler Junior 10
Adler Junior 1
Triumph Gabriele 2
Adler J 2
Adler Gabriele 25
Scheidegger (Gabriele) 25