Xerox were not the only copier manufacturer to manufacture and sell electronic typewriters. Japanese competitors, Canon, Sharp, Matsushita (Panasonic), Konishiroku1 (Konica), Toshiba-TEC, and Ricoh, all followed suit.

Frequently, ETs were given away with the purchase of a copier. Less frequently, a copier might be thrown in with the bulk purchase of ETs.

Of the Japanese, only Canon, Matsushita and Sharp manufactured ETs in any great numbers.

Readers may be surprised to learn that Ricoh (America) manufactured daisy wheel printers, plus, in the mid 1980s, at least two (510 and 520) EasyTyper electronic typewriters …

Toshiba used its TEC subsidiary to offer ETs free or discounted with the sale of its copiers …

Minolta did the same, selling “Minolta” ECW-201, 251, 401, 501 ETs also sourced from TEC …

Konishiroku Photo Co Ltd (Konica) owned a 34% stake in Royal Business Machines, with Triumph-Adler North America (TANA) owning the other 66% (that is, until the Japanese bought them out in January 1986 to create Konica Business Machines).

The mainstay of Royal Business Machines (since 1972) was the sale and assembly of copiers manufactured by Konishiroku.

Electronic typewriters were sourced mostly from Triumph-Adler, with others coming via Nakajima and, in the case of a handful of “Alpha” and “Beta” and ‘Signet” personal ETs, from Konishiroku themselves? (In other words, these seem different, and I’ve yet to see any evidence that these were made by Nakajima.)

Traditional typewriter manufacturers, Olivetti, IBM, Smith Corona, Triumph-Adler and AEG Olympia (and Brother Industries?) all formed alliances with Japanese copier makers. (But did they also manufacture copiers themselves?)

I do know Olivetti ETs were given away free with Fujitsu copiers (in this case a Nakajima ET masquerading as an Olivetti ET) …

And I also know Olympia ETs were given away free with Mita copiers …

See Also: The Typewriter Copiers (Part One)